[Read] ➭ Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices ➵ Peter F. Drucker – Motyourdrive.co.uk

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10 thoughts on “Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices

  1. says:

    This is the magnum opus of one of the greatest business minds of the 20th century, filtered and updated by one of his students five years after his death.It took me a year and a half to make it through this book Each chapter was so dense with thought provoking concepts that I couldn t read than about one a week The book s preface recommends reading each chapter as a standalone essay, which I agree with.The core hypothesis here is both simple and grand Organizations meaning for profit companies, schools, hospitals, etc are organs in the body of our society The role of a manager is to make organizations perform Therefore, a healthy society depends on the managers which populate its organizations.From that foundation, it becomes obvious why studying and improving the craft of management is not only worthwhile but perhaps even a moral imperative.I was surprised how much of the information here is directly relevant to management in an early stage startup Drucker was in his prime in the 1960s through the 1980s Startup folks like me think we re throwing all the rules out, but perhaps the core principles of running an effective business are timeless.Note that Drucker did not spend much of his career as a manager He was an economist, journalist, and business consultant He observed, recorded patterns, and fed that back into practical use via his role as an advisor.This is a seriously weighty tome, and I probably made a bigger time investment reading it than any other book I ve ever read But what a payoff.

  2. says:

    Without hesitation, I called Kotler s Marketing Management as the Bible of marketing, and using the same perspective, I will name this terrific book The Bible of Management There is not lecturer can teach management without using one of Drucker s publications, especially this book I made a good use of the content of this book to quote some definitions about the social implementation of management literature, such like entrepreneurship.I have read the kindle version and it was well designed.

  3. says:

    What other readers have written here is absolutely true Anyone who wants to manage others should read this book first.As I read through the book, I found myself thinking to myself over an over again how did one person put together all this knowledge The whole book reads like a home maintenance manual in that it answers questions you didn t even know you had before you read through, or poses problems that you hadn t considered but are vital to the health of any organisation, and gives clear salient advice about how to make an enterprise acheiving.I noticed some other readers mention they thought Drucker was a bit repetitive with some points throughout the book I have two comments about that First, I felt he did a good job of underscoring how a previously made point still applies in a different situation and encouraging his readers to see the patterns he s obviously discovered in his career of consulting and study of management Second, I felt a sense that I was being encouraged in the same sense that any hard driving coach continually repeats the fundamentals to their students Drucker does the later very smoothly by continually ending chapters or sub points by encouraging managers to take up hard challenges and make their business acheiving.I ll also echo some previous comments which say the book really should be read at a pace of maybe a chapter a day or even less Taking time to ruminate on Drucker s ideas, seeing how it applies in organisations you know or participate in really helps the ideas settle and become a part of your own thinking.Finishing the book, I find that rather than feel satisfied, I feel that Drucker has touched enough on all these facets of successful management that I find my interest piqued and my reading list burgeoning with new additions This is a great starting point and will likely lead to some excellent study tangents I m also very much looking forward to reading books by Drucker over time.

  4. says:

    Unfortunately it is way too theoretical I had huge expectations about this book but although I am sure there are some hidden gems, I would say it is not worth the effort.

  5. says:

    No manager worth her weight should be allowed to manage people, projects or businesses without a fundamental understanding of the teachings of Peter Drucker, The Man Who Invented Management Management Rev Ed captures a lifetime of Drucker s principles in one legacy guide book on the practice of management.The original text was published in 1973 This revised edition integrates Drucker s findings from then until his passing in 2005 at age 95 At than 500 pages it is comprehensive, yet easy to read The material has stood the test of time remarkably well.While many of us consider ourselves knowledge workers in the Internet age, it was Drucker who coined the term in 1959 The forward by Jim Collins puts this work into context The very best leaders are first and foremost effective managers This book provides the road map to becoming effective in the workplace.Here are five nuggets that capture the essence of this work One can divide the work of a manager into planning, organizing, integrating, measuring and developing people Yet, how many of us excel at each of these tasks on a weekly basis, especially the responsibility of developing people Not to innovate is the single largest reason for the decline of existing organizations Not to know how to manage is the single largest reason for the failure of new ventures Yet, what innovation have we introduced into our organization in the past 30 days, in the past 12 months In the industrial society schooling traditionally stopped when work began In the knowledge society, it never stops The fastest growing industry in any developed country may turn out to be the continuing education of already well educated adults Yet, how many of us have a plan for continuous learning The most effect way to manage change successfully is to create it This requires the organized abandonment of things that have been shown to be unsuccessful, and the organized and continuous improvement of every product, service, and process within the enterprise Yet, how many of us can identify one product, service or process improvement we ve contributed to our organization over the past 30 days, over the past 12 months One does not manage people The task is to lead people And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of each individual Yet, how many of us know our own strengths, not to mention the strengths of those we work with Five nuggets and I haven t summarized than the first 80 pages The modern workplace needs our help and the practice of management begins with each of us How well we manage ourselves is a reasonable indicator of how well we might manage others, and the very best leaders are first and foremost effective managers Buy this book, read it cover to cover, place it on your desk at work and refer to it daily For additional guidance on the topics of leadership and management access the following five star reviews Strengths Based Leadership and It s Your Ship Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy.

  6. says:

    Great book, though a bit long I took many, many notes, which shows I learned a lot from it But the writing style was a bit dry.

  7. says:

    Drucker has been a recent discovery for me The clarity he brings to the role of manager at any level is refreshing Though I would recommend the Essential Drucker as an intro.

  8. says:

    I read this about 18 years ago, from my dad s library I saw the revised edition at the bookstore today Yes, it s the classic tome I believe it has influenced me in subtle ways Worth a re read.

  9. says:

    So much information I haven t found elsewhere A must re read, although there s a lot at the beginning and some scattered throughout that is philosophical and less actionable Also too long to properly summarize.The theory of the business has 3 parts 1 Assumptions about the environment of the organization society and its structure, the market, the customer, and technology These define what the organization expects it can be paid for.2 Assumptions about the specific mission of the organization These define how the organization intends to make a difference in society and what results are meaningful.3 Assumptions about the core competencies needed to accomplish the organization s mission These define in which areas the organization must excel in order to achieve its mission.These three assumptions must fit one another and reality The theory of the business must be understood throughout the organization.When an organization takes its theory for granted, it stops thinking and questioning the very premises of its existence And every theory eventually becomes obsolete Without systematic abandonment, an organization will squander its scarce resources on what it should not do and deprive itself of resources it needs to exploit opportunities.One of the most effective ways to test the validity of a theory is to study the behavior of noncustomers.The purpose of a business Because its purpose is to create a customer, the business enterprise has two and only these two basic functions marketing and innovation.The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself.Innovation is not invention It is a term of economics rather than of technology Innovation can be defined as the task of endowing human and material resources with new and greater wealth producing capacity What is our business and what should it be The answer to the question What is our business is the first responsibility of top management That business purpose and business mission are so rarely given adequate thought is perhaps the most important single cause of business frustration and business failure.With respect to the definition of business purpose and business mission, there is only one such focus, one starting point It is the customer The customer defines the business A business is not defined by the company s name, statutes, or articles of incorporation It is defined by the want the customer satisfies when he buys a product or service To satisfy the customer is the mission and purpose of every business.The question What is our business can therefore only be answered by looking at the business from the outside, from the point of view of the customer and market Who is the customer is the first and the crucial question in defining business purpose and business mission Most businesses have at least two customers It is also important to ask Where is the customer The next question is What does the customer buy Cadillac competes with diamonds and mink coats What should it be What changes in the environment are already discernible that are likely to have a high impact on the characteristics, mission, and purpose of our business How do we now build these anticipations into our theory of the business, into its objectives, strategies, and work assignments Again, the market, its potential and its trends, is the starting point How large a market can we project for our business in five or ten years, assuming no basic changes in customers, in market structure, or in technology And, what factors could validate or disprove these projections The most important trend is changes in population structure and population dynamics Finally, management has to ask Which of the consumer s wants are not adequately satisfied by the products or services offered to him today What will our business be aims at adaptation to anticipated changes It aims at modifying, extending, developing the existing, ongoing business But there is need to ask What should our business be What opportunities are opening up, or can be created, to fulfill the purpose and mission of the business by making into a different business Objectives Defining the purpose and the mission of the business is difficult, painful, and risky But it alone enables a business to set objectives, to develop strategies, to concentrate its resources, and to go to work It alone enables a business to be managed for performance.The basic definition of the business and its purpose and mission have to be translated into objectives Otherwise, they remain insight, good intentions, and brilliant epigrams that never become achievement.1 Objectives must be derived from what our business is, what it will be, and what it should be They are not abstractions They are the action commitments through which the mission of a business is to be carried out, and the standards against which performance is to be measured Objectives, in other words, are the fundamental strategy of a business.2 Objectives must be operational They must be capable of being converted into specific targets and specific assignments They must be capable of becoming the basis, as well as the motivation, for work and achievement.3 Objectives must make possible concentration of resources and effort They must winnow out the fundamentals among the goals of a business so that they key resources of people, money, and physical facilities can be concentrated They must, therefore, be selective rather than encompass everything.4 There must be multiple objectives rather than a single objective Much of today s lively discussion of management by objectives is concerned with the search for the one right objective This search is not only likely to be unproductive, but it also does harm and misdirects To manage a business is to balance a variety of needs and goals, and this requires multiple objectives.5 Objectives are needed in all areas on which the survival of the business depends The specific targets, the goals in any objective area, depend on the strategy of the individual business But the areas in which objectives are needed are the same for all businesses, for all businesses depend on the same factors for their survival.A business must first be able to create a customer There is therefore a need for a marketing objective Businesses must be able to innovate, or else their competitors will obsolesce them There is need for an innovation objective All business depend on three factors of production of the economist, that is, on human resources, capitol resources, and physical resources There must be objectives for their supply, their employment, and their development The resources must be employed productively and their productivity has to grow if the business is to survive There is need, therefore, for productivity objectives Business exists in society and community and therefore has to discharge social responsibilities, at least to the point where it takes responsibility for its impact upon the environment Therefore objectives in respect to social dimensions of business are needed Finally, there is a need for profit otherwise none of the objectives can be attained They all require effort, that is, cost And they can be financed only out of the profits of a business They all entail risks they all, therefore, require a profit to cover the risk of the potential losses Profit is not an objective, but it is a requirement that has to be objectively determined with respect to the individual business, its strategy, its needs, and its risks.Objectives, therefore, need to be set in these 8 key areas 1 Marketing2 Innovation3 Human Resources4 Financial Resources5 Physical Resources6 Productivity7 Social Responsibility8 Profit RequirementsMarketing objectives Marketing performance requires a number of objectives for existing products and services in existing and present markets for abandonment of yesterday in product, services, and markets for new products and services for existing markets for new markets for the distributive organizations for service standards and service performance for credit standards and credit performance and so onObjectives in these areas can be set only after two key decisions have been made the decision on concentration, and the decision on market standing.Innovation objectives There are three kinds of innovation in every business innovation in product or service product innovation , innovation in marketplace and consumer behavior and values social innovation , and innovation in the various skills and activities needed to make the products and services and to bring them to market managerial innovation.Resource objectives The first sign of the decline of an industry is its loss of appeal to qualified, able, and ambitious people In the two areas of people and capital supply, genuine marketing objectives are therefore required What do our jobs have to be to attract and hold the kind of people we need and want What is the supply available on the job market And, what do we have to do to attract it Similarly, What does the investment in our business have to be, in the form of bank loans, long term debts, or equity, to attract and hold the capital we need Resource objectives have to be set in a double process One starting point is the anticipated needs of the business, which then have to be projected on the outside, that is, on the market for land, labor, and capital But the other starting points are these markets themselves, which then have to be projected onto the structure, the direction, the plans of the business.Productivity objectives The task of a business is to make resources productive Every business, therefore, needs productivity objectives with respect to each of the three major resources people, capital, and products of nature and with respect to overall productivity itself.Social responsibility objectives The social dimension is a survival dimension Society or the economy can put any business out of existence overnight The enterprise exists on sufferance and exists only as long as society and the economy believe that it does a job, and a necessary, useful, and productive one That such objectives need to be built into the strategy of a business, rather than be statements of good intentions, needs to be stressed here These are not objectives that are needed because the manager has a responsibility to society They are needed because the manager has a responsibility to the enterprise.Profit a need and limitationOnly after the objectives in the aforementioned seven key areas have been thought through and established can a business tackle the question How much profitability do we need To attain any of these objectives entails high risks It requires effort, and that means cost Profit is therefore needed to pay for attainment of the objectives of the business.The end products of business analysis are work programs and specific and concrete work assignments with defined goals, with deadlines, and with clear accountability Unless objectives are converted into action, they are not objectives they are dreams.Making the Future TodayI human affairs it is pointless to try to predict the future But it is possible and fruitful to identify major events that have already happened irrevocably and that will have predictable effects in the next decade or two It is possible, in other words, to identify and prepare for the future that has already happened A dominant factor for organizations in the next few decades is going to be demographics The key factor for business will not be overpopulation that we have been warned of for many years but underpopulation of the developed countries Japan, South Korea, and the nations of Western Europe.Strategic Planning The Entrepreneurial SkillStrategic planning prepares today s business for the future It asks, What should our business be It asks What do we have to do today to deserve the future Strategic planning requires risk taking decisions It requires an organized process of abandoning yesterday It requires that the work to be done to produce the desired future be clearly defined and clearly assigned The aim of strategic planning is action now Managing Service Institutions in the Society of OrganizationsTo make service institutions and service staffs perform does not require genius It requires, first, clear objectives and goals Next, it demands priorities on which resources can be concentrated It requires, further, clear measurements of accomplishment And finally, it demands organized abandonment of the obsolete And these four requirements are just as important for the service staff of a business as for the service institution in society.What Successful and Performing Nonprofits are Teaching BusinessThe first lesson business executives can learn from successful nonprofits is to begin with mission Successful nonprofits such as the Salvation Army avoid bland mission statements and focus their mission statement on specific strategies and action to turn society s rejects alcoholics, criminals, derelects into citizens Successful mission statements focus on the outside the community and the customer They look outside for what are considered meaningful results.Many nonprofits have what is still rare in business, a functioning board with clear duties and responsibilities and measures of both CEO and board effectiveness Nonprofit boards often serve as volunteers and contributors to the organization and feel commitment toward the mission and active involvement in the actual operations of the organization As a result, they know about operations of the organization than their business counterparts.Finally, successful nonprofits know how to manage volunteers Managing volunteers requires a clear mission or score , high demands, accountability, and training Those requirements for effective volunteers are very close to the requirements for leading knowledge workers in other sectors of the economy.Entrepreneurship in the Public Service InstituteFor a society to prosper, it must have engines of capital formation Service institutions are paid out of the surplus of wealth creating institutions A developed society cannot afford to have its service institutions waste capital As a result, public service institutions must be made to perform and to innovate One way to do this is to privatize whatever activities a service institution can outsource and convert from a nonprofit to a for profit activity This single step will make service activities effective so long as their missions are clear.The bulk of service activities performed in social sector and governmental organizations cannot be privatized These institutions must go to work to eliminate the obstacles to innovation There are many successful examples to point the way, including the Girl Scouts of the USA, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and cities such as Lincoln, NE.There are four requirements for successful innovation in the public service institution 1 Provide a clear definition of mission2 Establish goals that are attainable and stated in terms of the optimum rather than the theoretical maximum3 Probe objectives that are not being attained after repeated attempts failure to obtain objectives after repeated attempts means either that the objectives should be redefined or that the objectives should be abandoned4 Build into public service institutions entrepreneurial policies and practices that have been demonstrated to work in other sectors of the economyMaking Work Productive and the Worker AchievingThe main challenges to managing work and working are the changed psychological and social position of the manual worker the crisis of the traditional role and function of the union as a result of its success and the emergence of knowledge work as the economic and social center of the postindustrial, knowledge society.Managing the Work and Worker in Manual WorkThe realization that skill and knowledge are in the working rather than in the work is the key to making work productive The generic nature of work implies that work can be studied systematically, if not scientifically Until recently, the study of work has been confined to manual work for the reason that this was the main work around But the same principles and approaches apply to any other production work, such as most service work They apply to the processing of information, that is, to most clerical work They even apply to most knowledge work Only the applications and the tools vary Making work productive requires four separate activities, each with its own demands Because work is objective and impersonal and a something even if it is intangible, like information or knowledge making work productive has to begin with the end product, the output of work It cannot start with the input, whether craft skill or formal knowledge Skills, information, knowledge, are tools and what tool is to be applied when, and for what purpose, must always be determined by the desired end product The end product determines what work is needed It also determines the synthesis into a process, the design of the appropriate controls, and the specifications for the tools needed.Managing the Work and Worker in Knowledge WorkFor thousands of years no one thought that manual work could be made productive Even the term productivity was not known until around World War II But as soon as Frederick W Taylor, in 1881, looked critically at how the manual worker did his job, manual worker productivity rose dramatically In the century after 1880, productivity grew steadily at 3 to 4 percent compound per year, and that meant a fiftyfold growth in a hundred years.In manual work the task is always a given The machine or the assembly line program the factory worker The manual worker s productivity is thus never a question of what to do The question is always how to do it And for the great majority of manual workers the employer owns and controls the means of production and the workers tools With knowledge work, however, what to do becomes the first and decisive question For knowledge workers are not programmed by the machine or by the weather They largely are in control of their own tasks and must be in control of their own tasks For they, and only they, own and control the most expensive of the means of production their education and their most important tool their knowledge This is not just true of the people who apply high and advanced knowledge It s just as true of the computer service technician who comes to fix a problem of the technician in the hospital lab who makes a bacterial culture of the trainee who oversees a market test of a new product in the supermarket The how in knowledge work comes only after the what has been answered.There are a number of steps to improve knowledge worker productivity They include Define the task Focus on the task Define results Define quality Grant autonomy to the knowledge worker Demand accountability Build into tasks continuous learning and teachingThe only true competitive advantage for a company or a nation will increasingly be the productivity of its knowledge workers This will have a future impact on the governance of the corporation.Other chapters Social Impacts and Social ResponsibilitiesThe Manager s Work and JobsManagerial SkillsInnovation and EntrepreneurshipManagerial OrganizationNew Demands on the Individual

  10. says:

    This was a thought provoking read Its subject matter is possibly too broad for this to be read in a few days or weeks I ended up reading this over the course of a year Going back and re reading some chapters and sections was quite common as, while reading, I would be unable to resist searching for prior passages that I couldn t always recall For the most part, this book doesn t teach management, it invites us to think about the various responsibilities and impacts of management I discovered that the authoritative tone of the text made it difficult to think critically about some of the ideas presented here For example here s one statement that I just read a few minutes ago from the last chapter The key to the productivity of knowledge workers is to make them concentrate on the real assignment This is fairly dogmatic And also impractical You can take a horse to water but you can t make him drink it How do we make someone concentrate More important than focusing on the real problem is the problem of self motivation and ability to turn work into play This is expressed in chapter seventeen where the author says, Knowledge workers, except at the very lowest levels, are not productive under the spur of fear only self motivation and self direction make them productive They have to be achieving in order to produce at all The second statement resonates with my own experiences and, to me at least, seems to counter the implied need to use authority in the first statement.But then this what I liked the most about this book It led me to ponder what I probably would not have otherwise.

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